Given the fascinating natural history of true bugs and their status as model organisms for evolutionary studies, integration of cladistic analyses in a broader biogeographic and evolutionary context deserves increased attention.

Venom Proteins from endoparasitoid wasps and their role in host-parasite interactions. Although he undertook a considerable amount of taxonomic work on mosquitoes, he believes his most important, and possibly influential, work was introducing ecological methods that were used by agricultural scientists to the study of mosquitoes.

The few hypotheses on infraordinal relationships conflict on crucial points. Here, we review these ecological mechanisms influencing grassland arthropod diversity. Previously regarded as minor nuisance pests, psocids belonging to the genus Liposcelis now pose a major problem for the effective protection of stored products worldwide. We review the primary literature to document the incidence of cannibalism among insects that typically are not carnivorous. Function is well known for at least 8 glands but completely unknown for 6 glands, for 10 putative glandular structures, and for the exocrine component of the epitracheal glands.

Understanding relationships within Gerromorpha, Nepomorpha, Leptopodomorpha, Cimicomorpha, and Pentatomomorpha is improving, but progress within Enicocephalomorpha and Dipsocoromorpha is lagging behind. Data provided are for informational purposes only. In this article, we review the new and exciting progress and discoveries that have been made in B. mori during the past 10 years, which include the construction of a fine genome sequence and a genetic variation map, the evolution of genomes, the advent of functional genomics, the genetic basis of silk production, metamorphic development and immune response, and the advances in genetic manipulation.

Along with louse-borne infections such as typhus, trench fever, and relapsing fever, the relationship between Acinetobacter spp.-infected lice and bacteremia in the homeless is not clear. The hemipteran family Miridae (more specifically, the omnivorous Dicyphini: Dicyphina) is the best-known group of arthropods that specializes on sticky plants. This review examines vision and complex visually mediated behavior in the honey bee, outlining the structure and function of the compound eyes, the perception and discrimination of colors and shapes, the learning of complex tasks, the ability to establish and exploit complex associations, and the capacity to abstract general principles from a task and apply them to tackle novel situations. Odorant receptors (ORs) from moths, fruit flies, mosquitoes, and the honey bees have been deorphanized, odorant-degrading enzymes (ODEs) have been isolated, and the functions of odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) have been unveiled. Ash species indigenous to China are generally resistant to EAB and may eventually provide resistance genes for introgression into North American species.EABis characterized by stratified dispersal resulting from natural and human-assisted spread, and substantial effort has been devoted to the development of survey methods. We investigate what is known about the biology, behavior, and population dynamics of major pest species to ascertain their strengths, and perhaps find weaknesses, as a basis for a rational pest management strategy. A toolkit of robust assays can help address fundamental issues at the intersection of ecology and evolution, such as the underpinnings of plant-insect interactions and the identification of genes involved in host race formation. Please see for revised estimates. Rev.

Although model systems are useful in entomology, allowing generalizations based on a few well-known species, they also have drawbacks. Twenty-five years after the first review on the influence of cladistics on systematic research in Heteroptera, we summarize progress, problems, and future directions in the field.

Molecular systematics has dramatically contributed to accelerating the generation and testing of hypotheses. These factors include direct and indirect effects of grazing, fire, and climate, species interactions, above- and belowground interactions, and landscape-level effects.

By including aspects of functional morphology, physiology, and ecology in his research projects, he has favored-and advocated-an organism-centered approach. Public health programs should be engaged rapidly to control these pests and reduce the incidence of these transmissible diseases.

After almost eight years undertaking only research, he joined the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, where he was involved in lecturing as well as research and engaged in frequent overseas travel mainly to Africa, Central and South America, and Asia. Here we describe the possible recognition and effector function of key arthropod immune proteins, such as peroxinectin, hemolin, and hemomucin, as an outcome of changes in adhesiveness, which drive self-assembly reactions leading to cell-free coagulation and cellular uptake reactions. This review focuses on adaptation of IPM to these broader issues, on transitions of IPM from primarily individual field-based decision making to coordinated community decision making, and on the form of partnerships needed to gain long-lasting regional and environmental benefits. The central complex is a group of modular neuropils across the midline of the insect brain. Citation Style: Non-superscripted Number Date: Thursday, February 12, 2009 Discipline: Entomology File Name: Ann Rev Entomology.ens Publisher: Annual Reviews URL: Based On: Bibliography Sort Order: Author-Year-Title BibField1: Author BibField2: Year BibField3: Title Indent: Y Over the past several decades, public-supported incentives, such as financial incentives available to farmers from conservation programs for farms, have begun to be employed to encourage use of conservation techniques, including strategies with IPM relevance. Behavioral assays of insects are usually designed to measure attraction for feeding or oviposition in relation to their host plants or specific chemistry. As it continues to spread, it could functionally extirpate ash with devastating economic and ecological impacts. Among the animals, the Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) are second only to beetles in number of described species and are known for their striking intra- and interspecific diversity. Early eradication efforts were abandoned largely because of the difficulty of detecting and delineating infestations. This generated an incentives dilemma for farmers: selecting IPM activities for individual fields on the basis of market-based economics versus selecting IPM activities best applied regionally that have longer-term benefits, including environmental benefits, that accrue to the broader community as well as the farmer. Our knowledge of the molecular basis of odorant reception in insects has grown exponentially over the past decade. The secretions of 13 glandular types have been analyzed chemically.

The association of insect herbivores with their host plants is influenced by behaviors governing acceptance of those plants for feeding and oviposition., Advances in Silkworm Studies Accelerated by the Genome Sequencing of Bombyx mori, Physiology of Environmental Adaptations and Resource Acquisition in Cockroaches, Behavioral Assays for Studies of Host Plant Choice and Adaptation in Herbivorous Insects, Mirid (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) Specialists of Sticky Plants: Adaptations, Interactions, and Ecological Implications, Approaches and Incentives to Implement Integrated Pest Management that Addresses Regional and Environmental Issues, Role of Adhesion in Arthropod Immune Recognition, Forest Habitat Conservation in Africa Using Commercially Important Insects, Transmission of Flea-Borne Zoonotic Agents *, Emerald Ash Borer Invasion of North America: History, Biology, Ecology, Impacts, and Management, Ecological Mechanisms Underlying Arthropod Species Diversity in Grasslands, Arthropod-Borne Diseases Associated with Political and Social Disorder, Systematics, Biodiversity, Biogeography, and Host Associations of the Miridae (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cimicomorpha), Integrated Management of Sugarcane Whitegrubs in Australia: An Evolving Success, Honey Bees as a Model for Vision, Perception, and Cognition, Neural and Hormonal Control of Postecdysial Behaviors in Insects, Model Systems, Taxonomic Bias, and Sexual Selection: Beyond Drosophila, Odorant Reception in Insects: Roles of Receptors, Binding Proteins, and Degrading Enzymes, Biology and Management of Psocids Infesting Stored Products, Biology of New World Bot Flies: Cuterebridae, Using Geographic Information Systems and Decision Support Systems for the Prediction, Prevention, and Control of Vector-Borne Diseases, Organization and Functional Roles of the Central Complex in the Insect Brain, Breaking Good: A Chemist Wanders into Entomology, Ekbom Syndrome: The Challenge of “Invisible Bug” Infestations, Causes and Consequences of Cannibalism in Noncarnivorous Insects, A History of Entomological Classification, Preface.