Genetic testing involves taking a sample of someone’s DNA – extracted from, for example, cells present in their blood or saliva – and analyzing it to identify any mutations.
An exception is amniocentesis, which can increase the risk of a miscarriage.
That project—a 13-year multibillion-dollar program—was initiated in 1990 to identify all the estimated 20,000–25,000 genes and to make them accessible for further study. Although ethical questions related to genetic testing have been recognized for some time, they have gained a greater urgency because of the rapid advances in the field as a result of the success of the Human Genome Project. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mpmed.2020.07.014. Inappropriate applications of genetic testing Genetic testing has many potential applications, however some of these are in conflict with what may be considered ethical. This can lead to uncertainties for patients and clinicians.
The first is determining whether to order genetic testing for a patient. Regardless, when returning results, the second ethical crossroad has been reached; namely, establishing how the results are conveyed to the patient and if there are any potential interventions and/or outcomes.
Genetic testing creates important opportunities for assessment of genetic risk and diagnosis.
Using a number of case studies, the authors highlight some ethical considerations of genetic testing that a physician needs to deliberate at each of these crossroads and how genetic testing may impact their patients mentally and physically. What is genetic testing? Task Force on Genetic Testing, 1997 Indiana University Center Bioethicsfor 6/20/2016
Like any diagnostic criteria, the physician assesses the patient history and may directly order a specific genetic test.
Although specialists in this space often deliberate these ethical topics, this article provides insight into genetic testing for those outside of the specialist setting. The … Because some genetic tests may not provide all the information that families may want, the test may subsequently require difficult decisions without providing full information. Should people be able to control access to the results of their tests? There are two points at which physicians reach an ethical crossroads with genetic testing. This risk is higher for testing that is done earlier in the pregnancy; … In this series, we’ll explore some of the ethical issues of genetic testing, including those surrounding consent and confidentiality and the roles of the parties involved. There are two states in which a physician reaches an ethical crossroad with genetic testing. type of health program that involves the identification of any changes in genes If test resul… Generally, genetic tests have very little physical risk. Each new genetic test that is developed raises serious issues for medicine, public health, and social policy regarding the circumstances under which the test should be used, how the test is implemented, and what uses are made of its results.
These include the use of genetic testing to confirm paternity without the informed consent of all individuals involved and sex selection of a fetus for family balancing reasons.
Should people be allowed to choose or refuse the test, or should it be mandatory, as newborn screening is in some states? In an effort to reduce genetic diseases, especially those peculiar to certain populations, many communities encourage couples to perform genetic testing prior to marriage as well as on the fetus during pregnancy, to determine any risk of disease. However, some genetic tests do not identify all of the possible gene mutations that can cause a particular condition, or they have limited predictive value.
As an example, CF c… While this strategy has effectively reduced the prevalence of some genetic diseases like thalassaemia, for which there is still no cure, it is argued by some that it limits the indivi… A genetic test is the analysis of human DNA, RNA, chromosomes, proteins, and certain metabolites in order to detect heritable disease- related genotypes, mutations, phenotypes, or karyotypes for clinical purposes.