wintering areas to take advantage of year round food supplies from livestock

million birds. and easily compete with native birds for resources. Earthworms are caught by pulling from soil. C. fantastic aerial displays performed by flocks before roosting in the evening

[40], The common starling's gift for mimicry has long been recognised. What is the best way to report the occurrence of an invasive species? "European Starling." ", Mozart had a pet common starling which could sing part of his Piano Concerto in G Major (KV. Scientific Name: Sturnus [110], The global population of the common starling is estimated to be more than 310 million individuals and its numbers are not thought to be declining significantly, so the bird is classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as being of least concern. These flocks are commonly called murmurations. malaria in Hawaii. 2000. Feare, C.and Craig A. "Probing" involves the bird plunging its beak into the ground randomly and repetitively until an insect has been found, and is often accompanied by bill gaping where the bird opens its beak in the soil to enlarge a hole. Blood-sucking species leave their host when it dies, but other external parasites stay on the corpse. It is present in the Western Cape, the Eastern Cape and the Free State provinces of South Africa and lowland Lesotho, with occasional sightings in KwaZulu-Natal, Gauteng and around the town of Oranjemund in Namibia. scare tactic and trapping does not affect large enough numbers for the All of these examples indicate that the spread of disease by starlings

The European Starling molts in the fall and its new black plumage is covered with white spots.

[93] In 1987, a small population of common starlings was observed nesting in gardens in the city of Buenos Aires.

Flycatchers, Tree Swallows, Eastern Bluebirds and Purple Martins for nests, [3] Sturnus and vulgaris are derived from the Latin for "starling" and "common" respectively. these effects have produced differing results, depending on the species

He became very attached to the bird and arranged an elaborate funeral for it when it died three years later.

[5] The older name is referenced in William Butler Yeats' poem "The Stare's Nest by My Window". The male generally starts the nest, and the female finishes the job, often removing material that the male placed initially. livestock facilities, sewage treatment facilities, garbage dumps, cities of craneflies (Tipulidae) and moths (Lepidoptera) as well as mayflies (Ephemeroptera), Often characterized as bold, this bird is actually fairly wary and can be difficult to approach.

[106], In 1901, the inhabitants of Saint Kitts petitioned the Colonial Secretary for a ″government grant of starlings to exterminate″ an outbreak of grasshoppers which was causing enormous damage to their crops. The European Starling was first brought into the United States in the late 1800’s, but most introductions failed. in [28] In North America, northern populations have developed a migration pattern, vacating much of Canada in winter. [32], Very large roosts, up to 1.5 million birds, form in city centres, woodlands and reedbeds, causing problems with their droppings. [77] Protozoan blood parasites of the genus Haemoproteus have been found in common starlings,[78] but a better known pest is the brilliant scarlet nematode Syngamus trachea. Flocks of anything from five to fifty thousand common starlings form in areas of the UK just before sundown during mid-winter. they create for people, European Starlings also have detrimental effects possibly causing these populations to decline.

In the breeding season, their bills are yellow, and their legs are reddish. In the nonbreeding season, both males and females have grayish black bills and feathers that are glossy black with whitish spots on the tips. [140] A proposed solution to this problem is use of less palatable feed by agriculturalists, perhaps relying on larger feed types or feed which is less favorable in composition to starlings. Calls are varied and include trills, warbles, chirps, and screams.

near airports and have been implicated in air disasters, particularly when Common starlings have the physical traits that enable them to use this feeding technique, which has undoubtedly helped the species spread far and wide. One final potential benefit that we [4] The Old English staer, later stare, and the Latin sturnus are both derived from an unknown Indo-European root dating back to the second millennium BC. “The BIRD OF THE WEEK - THE EUROPEAN STARLING by Anne Lisbon November 9, 2020 Yes, the starling is not on the top of the list for most bird lovers. between European starlings and Lewis' Woodpeckers at nest cavities.” Journal [29] The alarm call is a harsh scream, and while foraging together common starlings squabble incessantly.

The common starling (Sturnus vulgaris), also known as the European starling in the United States or simply the starling in the British Isles, is a medium-sized passerine bird in the starling family, Sturnidae. Austrian ethologist Konrad Lorenz wrote of them in his book King Solomon's Ring as "the poor man's dog" and "something to love",[142] because nestlings are easily obtained from the wild and after careful hand rearing they are straightforward to look after. number of nest boxes away from the immediate areas of the cavity nesters,

food and water sources in the process. [95] New methods are being developed, such as tagging one bird and tracking it back to establish where other members of the flock roost. [40] The isolated Azores subspecies of the common starling eats the eggs of the endangered roseate tern. In spring and summer, European s tarlings are black with an iridescent green-purple sheen and yellow bill. [124], Because of the damage they do, there have been attempts to control the numbers of both native and introduced populations of common starlings. Juvenile sooty black with whitish chin and areas on the belly; the throat spotted black. The underwings blackish with pale fringes of the coverts.

(2 [99], Western Australia banned the import of common starlings in 1895. Starlings have been and continue to be harvested for Maybe the name is not fascinating, but the bird is. Like the nominate, but gloss on the head predominantly purple, on the back green, on the flanks usually purplish-blue, on the upper wing-coverts bluish-green. They are aggressive and gregarious For example, Vierling (1998) found that Lewis Woodpeckers Starlings are particularly

food sources. A bird with a deformed bill was heavily infested with Mallophaga lice, presumably due to its inability to remove vermin. But I will find him when he is asleep, and in his ear I'll holler 'Mortimer!'

Male: with good look, note blue-based bill. [139] They also show preference for feed types which were not whole corn but smaller feeds, creating more damage in areas where the feed was smaller.

Common starlings can eat and damage fruit in orchards such as grapes, peaches, olives, currants and tomatoes or dig up newly sown grain and sprouting crops. Sayre, R. W. and L. Clark [20] Of the 15,000 birds ringed as nestlings in Merseyside, England, individuals have been recovered at various times of year as far afield as Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia, Ukraine, Poland, Germany and the Low Countries. that they cause. Kicked out the natives (cavity nesters like Red-headed Woodpecker, Purple Martin, and bluebirds). [29] S. v. zetlandicus typically breeds in crevices and holes in cliffs, a habitat only rarely used by the nominate form. [127], The large size of flocks can also cause problems.

The young are born blind and naked.

I am not aware that

The European Starling is the only starling in North America, but it is one of approximately 119 species of starlings worldwide in 34 genera in the family Sturnidae. It is readily distinguished from other mid-sized passerines, such as thrushes, icterids or small corvids, by its relatively short tail, sharp, blade-like bill, round-bellied shape and strong, sizeable (and rufous-coloured) legs. The underwings like, Small; purple gloss restricted to the neck area and sometimes the flanks to the tail-coverts, otherwise glossed green.

[1] It had shown a marked increase in numbers throughout Europe from the 19th century to around the 1950s and 60s. Johnson R. and Glahn J. In some instances, a wild starling has been observed to mimic a sound it has heard only once.