Florida Entomologist [Western Flower Thrips Symposium Papers, Florida, USA, 15 July 2008. Oikos, 89(1):70-80, Andjus LJ, 1992.

(2011). Ecology and natural enemies of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande, 1895) in south-east Spain.

There is also considerable mortality due to failure of larvae to emerge safely from their egg. The movement of F. occidentalis is probably by human-assisted transport and natural dispersal once established in a new geographic area. 2017 Jun 1;46(3):722-728. doi: 10.1093/ee/nvx083. ©David Cappaert/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology.

F. occidentalis was significantly affected by fluctuating temperature or humidity. Adults and larvae are able to hide in concealed places on plants such as beneath plant hairs, within tight buds, enclosed in developing leaves, or underneath the calyx of fruits. Their life span is about 5 weeks. Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) and Frankliniella intonsa (Trybom) are sympatric pests of many greenhouse and field crops in Korea. Frankliniella occidentalis and other thrips harmful to vegetable and ornamental crops in Europe. The genus Frankliniella Karny, with keys for the determination of species (Thysanoptera).

Waterhouse D F, 1993. The potential use of different predatory bug species in the biological control of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

In its native range of the western USA, this thrips species can be found in large numbers on a very wide range of native plants, from lowland herbs to alpine shrubs and forbs.

Scientia Agraria, 9(3):395-397. http://ojs.c3sl.ufpr.br/ojs2/index.php/agraria, Zhang Rong, Ma JianHua, Yang Fang, Xian ChengZhong, Zhang SheHui, 2004. Antennae: 8 segments.

The Influence of Elevated CO2 Concentration on the Fitness Traits of Frankliniella occidentalis and Frankliniella intonsa (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Antennae: 8 segments.

Progress towards integrated pest management for thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in strawberries in Australia.

> 10°C, Cold average temp.

Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), an injurious intruder. 431:545 pp, Lacasa A, Contreras J, Sanchez JA, Lorca M, Garcia F, 1996. Strawberry. Most commonly it is in the surface layer of dead leaves beneath a plant, rather than in the soil, or even on the plant itself. It is present in southern Brazil (Monteiro et al., 1995), and also in the Cameron Highlands of Peninsular Malaysia (Fauziah and Saharan, 1991), and it is becoming more common in tropical lowland countries. Larvae are mobile, but they tend to reside in concealed places on plants, such as within flowers or developing leaves or under the calyx of fruits. Amblyseius swirskii: what made this predatory mite such a successful biocontrol agent? High fluctuations in temperature and low fluctuations in humidity appear to be the best conditions for controlling F. occidentalis populations in greenhouses. Life cycle can vary between 13 and …

The western flower thrips [Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande)] is an invasive pest insect in agriculture. 447–451, CISR: Center for Invasive Species Research Fact Sheet on Western Flower Thrips, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Western_flower_thrips&oldid=988992711, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 16 November 2020, at 12:40. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, CABI/EPPO, 1998.

The two types, which have been designated as the greenhouse (G) and lupin (L) strains are sympatric in their native range of California. Strawberry, Alocasia, Raphanus spp., Alfa alfa, Apple, Apricot, Peaches, Plums and Nectarines, Roses, Chrysanthemum, Carnation, Sweet pea, Gladiolus, Gerbera, Tomato, Capsicum, Cucumber, Melon, Grapes, Cotton and many more. Environmental Entomology, 32(5):1035-1044, Herron GA, James TM, 2005.