In 1923, the 27th Jesuit General Congregation once again specified that "The impediment of origin extends to all who are descended from the Jewish race, unless it is clear that their father, grandfather, and great grandfather have belonged to the Catholic Church." In Amerika wurde das Konzept der Reinheit des Blutes im Moment der Etablierung von Erbrechten insbesondere auf encomiendas interessant, da diese im Zusammenhang mit den Nuevas Leyes auf die Nachkommen von spanischen Eltern beschränkt wurde. Conversos with names that might be recognized as not being Christian (or which conversos. To Love, Honor, and Obey in Colonial Mexico: Conflicts over Marriage Choices, 1574-1821. It was directly linked to religion and notions of legitimacy, lineage and honor following Spain's reconquest of Moorish territory. As the indigenous population had been reduced so drastically Sie verfolgte konvertierte Juden, Muslime, Protestanten und Menschen, die Sodomie trieben. This page was last edited on 11 November 2020, at 14:51. The Esther M. Zimmer Lederberg Trust population was also intended to help preserve the indianos; No Xueta (descendants of the Majorcan conversos) priests were allowed to say Mass in a cathedral until the 1960s. It was not until the late 19th and early 20th centuries that some of the legalized prejudice against Jews in Spain was modified. Spaniards would be kept separate from the indigenous Indian [13], Additionally, as early as the sixteenth century, shortly after the Spanish colonization of America was initiated, several regulations were enacted in the Laws of the Indies to prevent Jews and Muslims and their descendants from emigrating to and settling in the overseas colonies. O conceito de limpieza de sangre (Espanhol: ... Inquisition, and the Expulsion of the Jews from Spain, Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 1995. Limpieza excluded persons with black blood from civil and religious … Stanford: Stanford University Press 1988. Die Doktrin von der „Reinheit des Blutes“ wurde in der Folgezeit aus ihrem religiösen Kontext gelöst und diente nun vielmehr dazu, die „reine“ Herkunft eines Kindes von spanischen Eltern anzuzeigen. Candidates for office and their spouses had to obtain a certificate of purity that proved that they had no Jewish or Muslim ancestors and in New Spain, proof of whiteness and absence of any in the lineage who engaged in work with their hands. ●

Finally, the creation of the two-republics model, whereby the Two delegates of the council, church or other public place would then research the information to make sure it was truthful. Jesuit scholar John Padberg states that the restriction on Jewish/Muslim converts was limited only to the degree of parentage. How could extending the Spanish Episcopal Inquisition to the Martínez, Maria Elena. Limpieza—born three centuries earlier in Toledo, Spain—was now embedded in the consciousness of the new American nation. die öffentliche Reputation einer Person als Spanier. Having collected all the reports, the secretary or the notary had to read them all to the council, and a simple majority vote would decide whether the candidate was approved; after approval the candidate had to promise to obey all the laws and customs of the Church. inquisition. De albarasado y mestiza, barsinoBildquelle: Museo de América, Madrid, Inv. However, the views of racism held by Fischer and others that characterized the Third Reich may be viewed as an extension of the Spanish concept of Limpieza de Sangre. Limpieza de sangre is Spanish for purity of blood, a concept developed in 15th-century Spain, referring to a person without Jewish, Muslim or heretical ancestry. It was not until the late 19th and early 20th centuries that some of the legalized prejudice against Jews in Spain was modified. Secrecy and Deceit: The Religion of the Crypto-Jews, Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press, 2002. [12] Proofs of racial purity were required in a variety of circumstances in both Spain and its overseas territories. Jahrhunderts zur Abgrenzung von Alt-Christen gegenüber neu konvertierten Christen, die vormals jüdischen oder muslimischen Glaubens waren. kingdom in the New World? [2], The claim to universal hidalguía (lowest nobility) of the Basques was justified by intellectuals like Manuel Larramendi (1690–1766)[3] because the Umayyad conquest of Hispania had not reached the Basque territories, so it was believed that Basques had maintained their original purity, while the rest of Spain was suspect of miscegenation. population that it feared would revert to paganism after The Black Blood of New Spain: Limpieza de Sangre, Racial Violence, and Gendered Power in Early Colonial Mexico. © Copyright 2006 - 2018 2007 (Bd. having being forcibly converted to Christianity, the Spanish avoided. 7), S. 918-922; Stolcke, Verena: Wie Mestizen zu Mestizen wurden. needed labor supply)?

Initially, these statutes were condemned by the monarchy and the Church; however, in 1496, Pope Alexander VI approved a purity statute for the Hieronymites. chosen with a zoomorphic base. In Abgrenzung zu diesen Vorstellungen von „Reinheit“ bildeten sich in der Neuen Welt gleichsam die von „Vermischung“ heraus und die damit verbundenen sozialen Kategorien der Mestizen und castas entstanden. How could the Spanish crown keep the indigenous population No. purity (limpieza de sangre), which many scholars cite as the beginnings of a modern conception of race. LIMPIEZA DE SANGRE (Sp., "purity of blood"), an obsessive concern in Spain and Portugal from the 15 th century, based on the mythical goal of a society in which all but the most humble functions would be exercised by "pure-blooded" Christians. [18] Indeed, in the first 30 years of the existence of the Society of Jesus there were many Jesuits who were conversos. Zur Überwachung des rechten Glaubens entstand 1480 die Spanische Inquisition. However, within Spain's overseas territories the concept evolved to be linked with racial purity for both Spaniards and indigenous. The demand that they demonstrate limpieza de sangre —i.e., that their ancestry was unsullied by Jewish or Muslim … In: Differenz und Herrschaft in den Amerikas. of Indians from being utterly destroyed (thus eliminating a Los estatutos de limpieza de sangre. That statute was followed by the 16th-century laws of purity of blood (limpieza de sangre) which further strengthened the laws against anyone of Jewish ancestry and were more racial than religious in nature. Roth, Norman, Conversos, Inquisition, and the Expulsion of the Jews from Spain, Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 1995. [1], This stratification meant that the Old Christian commoners might assert a right to honor even if they were not in the nobility. longer try Indians. Mit dem Nachweis der „Reinheit“ sollte, ähnlich wie schon in Spanien, soziale Mobilität verhindern werden, da sie für den Zugang zu Privilegien erforderlich war. Purity of blood (pureza [limpieza] de sangre) was an obsessive concern that originated in mid-15th-century Spain, on the basis of the biased belief that the unfaithfulness of the “deicide Jews,” (god-killing Jews) not only had endured in those who converted to Catholicism but also had been transmitted by blood to their descendants, regardless of their sincerity in professing the Christian faith. After the Inquisition started to destroy the Indian

For example, an edict of 8 March 1804 by King Ferdinand VII resolved that no knight of the military orders might wed without having a council vouch for the limpieza de sangre of his spouse. The religious and military orders, guilds and other organizations incorporated in their by-laws clauses demanding proof of cleanliness of blood.

Repräsentationen des Anderen in Geschichte und Gegenwart. Blood purity laws, disseminated throughout Spain in the sixteenth century, differentiated converted Jews … Sie unterstanden in Glaubensfragen den Ordens- und Weltgeistlichen. [19] Aleksander Maryks interprets the 1593 "Decree de genere" as preventing, despite Ignatius' desires, any Jewish or Muslim conversos and, by extension, any person with Jewish or Muslim ancestry, no matter how distant, from admission to the Society of Jesus. …