Some neophytes join other Indian people in the interior. Mission San Gabriel Arcángel is relocated from the slopes of the Montebello hills to the native site of Lisanchanga, three miles to the northwest. The remote mission Nuestra Señora de la Soledad is founded. Mission San Luis Rey de Francia is founded at the native village of Tacayme in the region known as Quechia. San Rafael Arcángel is founded as a medical asistencia (sub-mission) for San Francisco de Asís. Narciso Durán becomes Father President of the Alta California missions. Events overtake the implausible scheme when Americans sweep into California [1845-1846].

The red wax seals on the map bear the brands used by each of the California missions. Under Spanish rule, the first California mission fort was established. The high altar and its reredos date to 1818. It ultimately becomes the 3rd largest state in land mass (after Texas and Alaska), and by 1960 has the largest population. Mission Santa Clara de Asís is founded in the land of the Ohlone people. Mission Buenaventura has a well-landscaped garden, informative displays and a small, inviting museum. The first mission in the land of the Chumash people, San Luis Obispo de Tolosa, is founded at the village of Tilhini. Conversions begin to increase.

Richard Henry Dana serves as a crewmember of the Pilgrim, collecting hide and tallow, and visiting the missions and presidios [1834-1835]. Founded by Catholic priests of the Franciscan order to evangelize the Native Americans, the missions led to the creation of the New Spain province of Alta California and were part of the expansion of the Spanish Empire into the most northern and western parts of Spanish North America. Eight babies are born on the trail. Santa Clara is the last mission secularized in December of 1836. The Kumeyaay attack the San Diego compound occurs, killing José Vergerano, the servant of Fr. However, there were too few Indians to sustain a viable town and this experiment was subsequently dissolved and the land distributed to the remaining Indians and settlers. The compound as such consisted of little more than brush-covered enramadas and several grass huts. The California Missions From San Diego to Sonoma, 21 missions create a unique trail of history across California. A devastating smallpox and measles epidemic kills over 150 neophytes at San José from 1805 to 1806. The Republic of Texas becomes part of the United States.

The Serra Chapel at San Juan Capistrano is completed. Andrés Quintana. Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe is established with 68 men, women and children. The former mission is used as a ranch house for a number of years, and then falls into ruin, and is abandoned for over a century. Most were built during the late 1700’s, with the two northernmost being completed in the early 1800’s.

The seat of government for Baja and Alta California is moved to Monterey in February of 1777.

The seventh mission, San Juan Capistrano, is founded. The undermanned expedition establishes a garrison on San Diego’s Mission Hill. San Gabriel Arcángel, San Gabriel Valley. The U.S. notifies Lt. John Charles Fremont, who has been surveying the west, to “watch over U.S. interests in California.” By the time the message reaches Fremont in May of 1846 the U.S. Congress has already declared war on México. This is the only church that remains in which Fr. Felipe de Neve becomes first Civil Governor of California from 1777 to 1782. San Diego Mission is relocated five and a half miles inland to the native village of Nipaquay in August of 1774. The last Franciscan missionary to arrive in California in the 18th century, José Ramón Abella, dies at Santa Inés. Serra held mass. A group of 240 colonists and over 1000 animals arrive at San Gabriel, destined for Monterey and the San Francisco presidio. The impressive 210-foot long San Fernando Rey Convento (padre’s quarters and a guest house) is built.

Serra travels to Mexico City to clarify his authority and bolster support for the Alta California missions from 1772 to 1773. Fr. With many sick and dying, and supplies already low, plans to proceed to Monterey by ship are scrapped. Mission San Fernando Rey de España is founded on Rancho Los Encinos, held by Don Francisco Reyes. A major measles epidemic erupts in Alta California and 951 adults and 751 children die from 1827 to 1828. The population of San Luis Rey de Francia reaches 2,869, the highest achieved by any mission. Luis Antonio Martínez, of San Luis Obispo, is accused of complicity in the affair but is ultimately exonerated on February 3, 1830. The Spanish missions in California comprise a series of 21 religious outposts or missions established between 1769 and 1833 in what is now the U.S. state of California. Administrators are appointed. The mission sits on the only original Spanish square left in California. Mission San Carlos Borromeo is relocated to the Carmel Valley near the Indian village of Ekheya. Mission San Buenaventura became a parish church after it was secularized in 1836. The San Antonio returns to San Diego and the struggling new colony is saved. Fr. Soldiers of the Monterey Presidio launch a revolt in 1829.

Thirty-two men and women settle the pueblo of Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles del Río de Porciúncula. After gold is discovered in California, his book becomes a best seller. What Do You Want to Know about California’s Missions? Fr. Dodge and Alexander Harmer, The Cardinell-Vincent Postcards of the California Missions, The Mission Padres of California by Julius Ludovici, Key Personalities in California's History. Mission La Purísima Concepción is founded at the Chumash Indian village of Algsacupi. would receive large grants of mission land and twenty-one Administrators from their ranks would oversee the Indians. The expedition leader, Gaspar de Portolá, and the first FatherPresident, Junípero Serra, arrive in San Diego after an arduous six-week journey. American warships under the command of Commodore John D. Sloat of the frigate USS Savannah, and two sloops, including the USS Cyane and the USS Levant, capture Monterey and claim California for the United States. This fortress-like mission boasted a 170-acre vineyard, the … Period accounts indicate that the friar was poisoned. Missions San Luis Rey and San Diego are occupied by the U.S. Army during the MexicanAmerican War [1846-1847]. The San Carlos is the first ship to enter San Francisco Bay. The Californios resist American occupation and fighting continues into 1847.

The Russian-American Company operates a hunting station on Farallon Islands starting from 1819 to 1834. Hippolyte de Bouchard, a Frenchman with a privateer’s license from the Republic of Río de la Plata (Argentina), attacks the coast of California, burning both the Monterey Presidio and Mission San Juan Capistrano in December of 1818. He reorganizes the administration of finances, streamlines regulations, and takes steps to grant the neophytes a greater role in mission management. Portolá is unsuccessful in finding Monterey but discovers the Bay of San Francisco. Many emancipated neophytes leave. San Blas is founded as a naval base and supply depot. California becomes the 31st state of the Union [09/09/1850].
The Great Stone Church at San Juan Capistrano is destroyed in a massive earthquake, killing 40 neophytes. A provisional pole and thatch chapel is erected at the presidio. Missions are secularized from 1833 to 1836. Alemany files a petition for the return of all former mission land on February 19, 1853. In 1776 the Declaration of Independence declared the East Coast free from British control. Mexican Administrators begin to move friends and relatives into former mission buildings. An epidemic at San Francisco de Asís decimates the population. Quechans Indians destroy the two Spanish missions in the Yuma area, severing Spain’s tenuous overland route from central México to California. California is transferred from direct control by the Viceroy in Mexico City to the northern military command of the Interior Provinces, headed by Teodoro de Croix. Another group of settlers arrives in Alta California.
Tradesmen, vaqueros and some others prosper but most become field hands or servants. The first Christian wedding in Alta California takes place at San Antonio de Padua. One of the first American settlers in California, Thomas Doak, constructs and paints the main altar reredos at San Juan Bautista. Junípero Serra founds Mission San Diego de Alcalá on Presidio Hill. Fr. San Buenaventura follows in 1843. What is left of the Pious Fund of the Missions of California is confiscated by Mexican President Antonio López María de Santa Ana.

A former missionary of British Guiana, Fr. Sergeant José Ortega escorts colonists from Baja California to San Diego Presidio. Mission San Miguel Arcángel is founded at a site the local Salinan Indians call Valica. California is returned to direct control by the Viceroy in Mexico City in 1792.