Brain research provides growing evidence of the importance of physical activity for various aspects of cognitive functions. In the second model, the key predictor variables included changes in muscular fitness (ZMuscular_3–ZMuscular_1), anaerobic power (ZAnaerobic_3–ZAnaerobic_1) and flexibility (ZFlexibility_3–ZFlexibility_1) from the first to third year in senior high school, respectively.

The association between school-based physical activity, including physical education, and academic performance: a systematic review of the literature. Second, the university entrance exam is the necessary hurdle for all university-bound seniors to be admitted into an undergraduate program in Taiwan. Funnel plots only indicated significant publication bias for the pooled subgroup analyses of composite scores (P < .10) (Supplemental Fig 3).

in Curriculum and Instruction program. independently scored the included studies. We gave a positive score if the publication provided an informative description of the criterion at issue and met the quality criterion.

Provision of the details on the studies included in the present review will enable the reader to gain insight into these differences (Table and eTable 2).

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