Brain research provides growing evidence of the importance of physical activity for various aspects of cognitive functions. In the second model, the key predictor variables included changes in muscular fitness (ZMuscular_3–ZMuscular_1), anaerobic power (ZAnaerobic_3–ZAnaerobic_1) and flexibility (ZFlexibility_3–ZFlexibility_1) from the first to third year in senior high school, respectively.

The association between school-based physical activity, including physical education, and academic performance: a systematic review of the literature. Second, the university entrance exam is the necessary hurdle for all university-bound seniors to be admitted into an undergraduate program in Taiwan. Funnel plots only indicated significant publication bias for the pooled subgroup analyses of composite scores (P < .10) (Supplemental Fig 3).

in Curriculum and Instruction program. independently scored the included studies. We gave a positive score if the publication provided an informative description of the criterion at issue and met the quality criterion.

Provision of the details on the studies included in the present review will enable the reader to gain insight into these differences (Table and eTable 2).

For permissions, please email:, Efficacy of Canadian health warning statements on caffeinated energy drinks: an experimental study among young Canadians, Implementation and outcome evaluation of a team nutrition intervention: increasing knowledge, attitudes, and preferences, Process evaluation of HAT TRICK: feasibility, acceptability and opportunities for programme refinement, Measuring the effect of interpersonal communication on awareness and knowledge of COVID-19 among rural communities in Eastern Nigeria, Evaluation of hand hygiene behaviour in basic schools in Ghana: a case study of the Ablekuma Central Municipality in the greater region of Ghana,,,,,, Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic, Physical activity, physical fitness and academic achievement in adolescents: a self-organizing maps approach, Physical fitness and academic performance in primary school children with and without a social disadvantage, Perceived physical fitness mediates the relationship between parental support and physical activity enjoyment in overweight and obese adolescents, Implementation of initiatives to prevent student stress: process evaluation findings from the Healthy High School study. That is, there are lower level units (e.g.  et al. FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE: The authors have indicated they have no financial relationships relevant to this article to disclose.

Virginia Education Association: The Importance of Physical Education, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): The Association Between School-Based Physical Activity, Including Physical Education, and Academic Performance, CDC: Childhood Obesity Causes & Consequences, Data Resource Center for Child & Adolescent Health: Overweight/Obesity, age 10-17 years, AboutKidsHealth: Physical Activity: Benefits of Exercise for Health and Wellbeing, CalmClinic: Obsessive Thoughts: A Common Anxiety Symptom, CDC: State-Based Prevalence Data of Parent-Reported ADHD Medication Treatment, HuffPost: The Simple Way a Growing Number of States Are Hoping to Improve Kids’ Brains.